The Atomic Poems of Margaret (Lucas) Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle, from her Poems, and Fancies, 1653, an electronic edition. Edited with an introduction by Leigh Tillman Partington
- critical introduction
- Timeline for Margaret (Lucas) Cavendish
collection: Early Modern through the 18th Century
- Timeline: Selected Western Events Surrounding the Life of Margaret (Lucas) Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle
- Chronology of Military and Political Events in Seventeenth-Century England
Selected Western Events Surrounding the Life of Margaret (Lucas) Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle16
1613 William Shakespeare dies.
1616 Jakob Le Maire sails around the southern end of Tierra del Fuego, naming the southern most point Cape Horn.
1619 The first black slaves arrive in Virginia.
1620 Francis Bacon's Novum Organum (New Organon). Bacon argues that deduction might be a practical method for working with mathematics, but that the laws of science must be induced, or established as generalizations drawn out of a vast mass of specific observation; this provides the theoretical backing for what we now call the scientific method. The Mayflower lands at Plymouth, and the first permanent English settlement in New England is established.
1623 Margaret Lucas Cavendish born. Publication of the first complete collection of Shakespeare's works, called the First Folio. Francis Bacon's De Dignitate et Augmentis Scientarium and Historia Vitae et Mortis. Philip Massinger's The Bondmen. Inigo Jones begins the Queen's Chapel, St. James (completed in 1668). The Statute of Monopolies, which lays down laws for granting patents to inventors, is passed; previously, the king had granted monopolies. Wilhelm Schickhardt builds a mechanical calculator based on the idea of Napier's bones; it can add, subtract, multiply, and divide, and is intended to aid in astronomical calculations.
1624 John Donne's Devotions upon Emergent Occasions. Massinger's The Renegado. John Fletcher's Rule a Wife and Have a Wife and A Wife for a Month. Francis Pilkington's Second Set of Madrigals. Frans Hals's painting The Laughing Cavalier. Anthony Van Dyck's painting Madonna of the Rosary. Peter Paul Rubens's painting Vladislav Sigismund IV, King of Poland. Louis XIII decides to build a new palace around his hunting lodge at Versailles. Jan Baptista van Helmont decides that the vapors with which he has been working need a name; because they had no specific volume but filled any container, they seemed to be matter in chaos. van Helmont called the vapors chaos, but spelled the word according to its Flemish pronunciation -- gas.
1625 Bacon's Apophthagmes New and Old and The Translation of Certaine Psalmes into English Verse. Charles I suppresses all news sheets in England. Massinger's A New Way to Pay Old Debts. Francis Beaumont, John Fletcher, and Philip Massinger's Love Cures All. Fletcher and Massinger's The Elder Brother and A Very Woman. John Fletcher dies. Dutch potters in Delft begin to imitate imported blue-and-white Chinese porcelain. Jan Brueghel dies.
1626 Francis Bacon dies. Shirley's The Maid's Revenge. Massinger's The Roman Actor. Pappenheim invents a gear pump that is still used as a fuel pump in automobiles. Rembrandt van Rijn paints The Angel and the Prophet Balaam. Nicolas Poussin paints The Assumption of the Virgin. Peter Minuit buys Manhattan Island from the Algonquain Indians.
1627 John Ford's 'Tis Pity She's A Whore. Massinger's The Great Duke of Florence. Bacon's New Atlantis. Rembrandt paints The Flight into Egypt and The Money-Changers. Heinrich Schütz's Dafne, the first German opera. Kepler's Rudolphine Tables (planetary tables based on Kepler's elliptical orbits and Napier's logarithmic tables) are published; the publication includes a star map of over one thousand stars.
1628 Shirley's The Witty Fair One. Ford's The Lover's Melancholy. William Harvey's De Motu Cordis et Sanguinis (Concerning the motion of the heart and blood) describes circulation of the blood. Benedetto Castelli's Della misura dell'acque correnti (On the measurement of running waters) lays the foundation of hydraulic technology. Diego Velázquez paints The Triumph of Bacchus. Gian Lorenzo Bernini begins the tomb of Urban VIII. Salem, Massachusetts is founded.
1629 Francis Quarles's poetic work Argalus and Parthenia. Ben Jonson's The Newe Inne, or The Light Heart. Ford's The Broken Heart. Giovanni Branca's Le machine, which describes a steam turbine in which steam is directed at vanes on a wheel.
1630 Johannes Kepler dies. John Smith's autobiography The True Travels, Adventures, and Observations of Captaine John Smith in Europe, Asia, Africa, and America, from . . . 1593 to 1629. . . . Disputed biblical writings called the Apocrypha dropped from the King James or Authorized Version of the Bible. The first dining fork in the Massachusetts Bay colony, and possibly the only fork in North America, is imported by Governor John Winthrop.
1631 John Donne, Michael Drayton, and John Smith die. Shirley's Love's Cruelty and The Traitor. Pierre Corneille's Cliandre and La Veuve. Katherine Philips born. Pierre Vernier invents his scale for precise measurement, known today as the Vernier scale.
1632 John Milton's poetic companion pieces L'Allegro and Il Penseroso.17 Shirley's Hyde Park. Massinger's The City Madam. Anton Van Leeuwenhoek born. Galileo publishes his Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems, which argues for the Copernican helio-centric universe, in the vernacular rather than in Latin.
1633 Donne's poems are published. George Herbert dies. Shirley's The Gamester. Massinger's The Guardian. Galileo is forced by the Catholic Inquisition to deny the Copernican teaching that the earth moves around the sun.
1634 Jonson's English Grammar. Milton's masque Comus, with music by Henry Lawes, is presented at Ludlow Castle on September 29th. John Marston and John Webster die. A craze for tulips provokes speculation in bulbs in Holland; this "tulipmania" results in prices higher than $5000 for single bulbs of the most desired varieties of tulip. Claude's painting Harbour Scene. Anthony Van Dyck's painting Lamentation for Christ.
1635 Shirley's The Lady of Pleasure. Corneille's Médée. Académie Française is established to maintain a dictionary of French and make judgments about usage, grammar, and vocabulary. Rubens is painting The Rape of the Sabines, Venus and Adonis, Bathsheba Receiving David's Letter, Christ on the Cross, and The Massacre of the Innocents. Henry Geillibrand publishes his argument and evidence that the compass needle has shifted direction by seven degrees in the past half-century; indicating that the magnetic poles exist separately from the geographic poles, and they shift position.
1636 Thomas Killigrew's The Princess; or, Love at First Sight and Claracilla. Claudio Monteverdi's ballet Volgendo il ciel.
1637 Milton's Lycidas. A Decree of Starre-Chamber Concerning Printing limits the number of print shops and type foundries. Ben Jonson dies. Francesco Borromini designs the Oratory of St. Philip Neri, Rome. Poussin's painting The Adoration of the Shepherds. André Le Nôtre is named royal gardener to Louis XIII. Corneille's Le Cid premieres at the Marais Theatre. René Descartes publishes his Discours de la méthode, which describes the finding of scientific truth through good reasoning; the appendix combines algebra and geometry, producing analytic geometry, and laying the foundation for the development of calculus.
1638 The ban on English news sheets is lifted; Nathanial Butter and Nicholas Bourne (publishers of the First Folio) are granted the sole right to print the news in England. Inigo Jones completes the design for rebuilding St. Paul's Church in London. Francis Pilkington dies. Galileo's Discoursi e dimonstrazioni matemetiche, intorno à due nuove scienze (Dialogues concerning two new sciences), which includes a study of the breaking strengths of beams that is flawed in parts, but is extremely influential.
1639 John Ford dies.
1640 Philip Massinger dies. Aphra Behn probably born.
1641 Shirley's The Cardinal. Killigrew's The Parson's Wedding. Ferdinand II, the Grand Duke of Tuscany, invents a thermometer that uses liquid in a glass tube that has one end sealed; this is a slight improvement on Galileo's thermometer. Vincenzio Galilei (Galileo's son) builds a clock with a pendulum (based on one of Dad's concepts). William Gascoigne places cross hairs in his telescope to aid in measuring angles, turning the telescope from a viewing toy into an instrument of precision; but he is killed in battle before he can completely develop his idea, and cross hairs must be rediscovered twenty years later.
1642 Galileo Galilei dies. Shirley's The Sisters. The 55-km-long Briare Canal, begun in 1605, is completed. The canal links the Loire to the Seine with a system of forty locks. Blaine Pascal develops a mechanical calculator that can add and subtract; he produces about 50 different versions of the calculator over the next ten years, and offers some for sale, beginning in 1645. Rembrandt paints Nightwatch. The cello first comes into use. Abel Tasman discovers Tasmania.
1643 Isaac Newton born. Corneille's Le Mort de Pompée and Le Menteur. Evangelista Torricelli, on a suggestion from Galileo, invents the barometer. Torricelli uses mercury as a fluid in a glass column sealed at the top; when the tube is upended in a dish the mercury sinks to about 76 cm, leaving a partial vacuum at the top. This produces the first vacuum known to science. Louis XIII dies.
1644 Milton's Areopagitica -- the text of his 1643 speech before Parliament for freedom of the press and against licensing of printed materials by censors. Francesco Cavelli's opera Ormindo. In the years 1644-45, several hundred women identified as having witch marks, often within the labia majora, were put to death by Matthew Hopkins, an English lawyer whose campaign to exterminate witches earned him the title, "the witch-finder general."
1645 Milton's Poems. Aemilia Lanyer dies. Bernini's sculpture The Ecstasy of St. Teresa. Hals's painting Portrait of a Young Man. Sir Richard Weston, having observed crop rotation practiced successfully in Flanders, publishes a description of the method. Otto von Guericke invents the air pump. He uses it to produce vacuums, and gives public demonstrations in the 1650s and 1660s; the most famous demonstrations use teams of horses that are unable to break apart spheres held together by a vacuum.
1646 Corneille's Héraclitus. Athanasius Kircher invents the magic lantern and describes it in his Ars magna lucis et umbrae (The great art of light and shadows); he also invents a distance-recording device, or milometer, for carriages.
1647 Rembrandt paints Susanna and the Elders and Rest on the Flight into Egypt. Andreas Gryphius's tragedy Cardenio and Celinde.
1648 Robert Herrick's "To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time," "Corinna's Going A-Maying," and "Delight in Disorder." Academy of Painting and Sculpture is founded in Paris.
1649 Milton, assisted by Andrew Marvell, becomes Latin secretary to Oliver Cromwell. Antonio Cesti's opera Orontea.
1650 Marvell's "To His Coy Mistress." Rembrandt paints The Man with the Golden Helmet. Georges de la Tour paints St. Sebastian and The New-Born Child. Otto von Guericke demonstrates in 1650 that electricity can be used to produce light, obtaining a luminous glow from a rotating globe of sulphur by applying pressure from his hand to the globe. The Taj Mahal is completed. Giambattista Riccioli observes Mizar, the first double star.
1651 Katherine Philips's poem in memory of William Cartwright appears in his Comedies, Tragi-Comedies. Lady Mary Wroth dies either this year or in 1653. Velázquez's painting The Toilet of Venus. Calisto and Rosinda, two operas by Cavalli.
1652 Milton's "When I Consider How My Light is Spent." Inigo Jones dies.
1653 Shirley's Cupid and Death. Margaret Cavendish's Poems, and Fancies and Philosophicall Fancies. La Nuit, Jean-Baptiste Lully's ballet, opens February 25th; Louis XIV dances the role of the sun and earns the nickname "The Sun King." Dutch engineer Cornelius Vermuyden, commissioned by Charles I, drains and reclaims 124,000 hectares in the Fenns region of England.
1654 James Ussher, Archbishop of Armagh, publishes Annales veteris et novi testamenti, a work on Biblical chronology that dates the Creation to 4004 B.C. (English theologian John Lightfoot will soon amend this calculation to October 26th, 4004 B.C. at 9 a.m.) Ferdinand II invented the sealed thermometer; improvements on this basic design by Fahrenheit 60 years later result in the modern thermometer. Chevalier de Mere, a habitual gambler, asks Pascal to figure out why he kept losing money at a certain game of dice; Pascal consulted mathematician Pierre de Fermat and they laid the foundations for the theory of probability.
1655 Cavendish's The World's Olio and The Philosophical and Physical Opinions. Poussin paints The Arcadian Shepherds. Johann Shultes's Armementarium chirugicum (The hardware of the surgeon) describes a procedure for removing a female breast.
1656 William Davenant's The Siege of Rhodes, the first all-sung English opera. Bernini begins work on the piazza and colonnade at St. Peters'. Jan Vermeer's painting A Girl Asleep. Dutch astronomer Christiaan Huygens identifies the rings of Saturn, discovers and names Saturn's moon Titan, announces that the middle star of Orion's sword is a cloud of luminous gas rather than a star, and invents the first accurate pendulum clock. Cavendish's Nature's Pictures drawn by Fancies Pencil to the Life. Cyrano de Bergerac's L'histoire comique des états et empires de la lune suggests seven ways for travelling from the Earth to the Moon; six of the ways would not have worked, but the seventh is by means of a rocket.
1657 William Harvey dies. Salomon de Coster, working off of Huygen's pendulum clock, begins to construct a series of spring-driven clocks that use a pendulum rather than a foliot balance or balance wheel. Robert Hooke creates a vacuum large enough to perform an experiment dropping a feather and a coin from the top of the vacuum; they fall at the same rate, proving Galileo's theory that all bodies fall at equal rates. Cromwell allows Jews to return to England; they had been officially expelled by Edward I 350 years earlier.
1658 Davenant's The Spaniards in Peru. Vermeer paints The Kitchen-Maid and Young Woman with a Water Jug. On October 24th, Molière appears before Louis XIV and his court at the Louvre as an actor in Corneille's Nicomède. Robert Hooke invents the spiral spring for watches. Jan Swammerdam discovers the red blood corpuscle.
1659 Davenant's Sir Francis Drake. Pieter de Hooch paints A Mother Beside a Cradle. Huygens constructs a chronometer for use at sea; however, it is influenced by the motion of the ship and does not keep correct time.
1660 Samuel Pepys begins keeping a diary. John Dryden's "Astraea Redux." Royal Society is founded. Charles II grants patents to two theatre companies: Killigrew's King's Company, and Davenant's Duke's Company. Actresses first appear on stage. The first bassoons are developed in France. von Guericke develops a way to charge a ball of sulfur with static electricity, producing the greatest amount of electricity gathered in one place to this time; von Guericke also uses a barometer to forecast weather. Marcello Malpighi, using a microscope, completes Harvey's theory of circulation by discovering capillaries.
1661 Lincoln's Inn Fields Theatre opens. Huygens invents a manometer for measuring the elasticity of gases. Claude's painting The Rest on the Flight to Egypt. Louis XIV commissions the first of three major reconstructions of Versailles. Molière's The School for Husbands premieres in Paris. Robert Boyle publishes The Skeptical Chymist, divorces chemistry from medicine and alchemy, and declares that it must be an experimental science, rather than a deductive one. Louis XIV, now twenty-three, takes his throne.
1662 Revised Book of Common Prayer restored to use. Wren begins Oxford University's Sheldonian Theatre (completed in 1669). Charles II decrees actresses must play all female parts on stage. Cavendish's Plays and Orations of Divers Sorts, Accomodated to Divers Places. Molière's School for Wives. Vermeer's paintings include: A Woman Weighing Gold, Young Lady with a Pearl Necklace, and Young Woman Reading a Letter. The "Printing Act," exerting strict controls on publishing is ratified by Parliament; it is "An Act for preventing the frequent abuses in printing seditious, treasonable and unlicensed books and pamphlets and for regulating of printing and of printing presses." van Helmont's Oriatrike (Physics refined). Blaine Pascal proposes a system of public transportation in Paris, whereby coaches would travel along predetermined routes and take passengers for a small fee; the first coach went into service in 1663. By experimenting with the volumes of compressed gases, Boyle develops Boyle's Law, the volume of gas varies inversely with the pressure applied. Boyle's experiments were strong evidence in favor of atomism.
1663 Samuel Butler's Hudibras. Roger L'Estrange begins publishing the newspaper Publick Intelligencer. Wren begins the Pembroke College Chapel at Cambridge. The Drury Lane Theatre opens as the Theatre Royal, with a production of Beaumont and Fletcher's The Humorous Lieutenant. Cavendish's Philosophical and Physical Opinions, second edition. Philips's translation of La Mort de Pompee is produced in Dublin. The Marquis of Worcester claims to have discovered the power of steam to raise water from wells and to burst cannons. James Gregory's Optica Promota describes a reflecting telescope.
1664 Cavendish's CCXI. Sociable Letters and Philosophical Letters: or, Modest Reflections upon some Opinions in Natural Philosophy, maintained by several famous and learned Authors of this Age, expressed by way of Letters. Also the second "corrected" edition of Poems, and Fancies. Unauthorized publication of Poems. By the Incomparable Mrs. K. P. (Katherine Philips). Katherine Philips dies. Vermeer paints The Lacemaker. Hals paints Governors of the Old Men's Home at Haarlem. Molière's Tartuffe, ou l'imposteur. Robert Hooke observes Jupiter's Great Red Spot.
1665 Henry Muddiman begins publication of the Oxford Gazette, soon to become the London Gazette. John Bunyan's The Holy City, or the New Jerusalem. Lully's ballets La Naissance de Vénus and L'Amour médecin. The Great Plague kills an estimated 65,000 - 75,000 Londoners. In the country to escape the plague, Isaac Newton sits under an apple tree and "discovers" gravity, which he muses over, then publishes the law of universal gravity in 1682. Newton also begins his experiments with prisms and light. Hooke proposes that artificial silk might be manufactured by extruding a solution of gum, and publishes his Micrographia, which describes, among other things, the cell. Nicolas Poussin dies. Gian Domenico Cassini observes that Mars rotates every twenty-four hours forty minutes, and Jupiter rotates every nine hours fifty-six minutes.
1666 Dryden's Secret Love, or the Maiden Queen. Frans Hals and James Shirley die. Great Fire of London. Cavendish's Observations upon Experimental Philosophy. To which is added, The Description of a new Blazing World. Molière's Le Misanthrope and Le Médecin malgré lui. Cheddar cheese is invented in Cheddar, England. Because almost all European paper is made from recycled cloth rags, which are becoming increasingly scarce as books and other materials are printed, the Parliament bans burial in cotton so as to preserve the cloth for paper manufacture. Richard Lower demonstrates the direct transfusion of blood between two dogs. Physician Thomas Sydenha, "the English Hippocrates," publishes Methodus curandi febres, advocating the use of opium to relieve pain, chinchona bark (quinine) to relieve malaria, and iron to relieve anemia. Jean de Thévenot describes his concept of the carpenter's level, a bubble floating in a thin glass tube filled with liquid. Hooke designs a new type of escapement for clocks, resulting in a more accurate clock.
1667 Milton's Paradise Lost. Dryden's Annus Mirabilis and The Indian Emperor. Cavendish's The Life of the Thrice Noble, High and Puissant Prince William Cavendish (a second edition was printed in 1675). Authorized collection of Philips's works is published. Racine's Andromaque. In a demonstration in front of the Royal Society, Robert Boyle proves that an animal can be kept alive by artificial respiration. Hooke invents the anemometer, an instrument for measuring the force or speed of the wind.
1668 Dryden's Of Dramatick Poesie. George Etherege's comedy She Would If She Could. Charles Sedley's The Mulberry-Garden. William Davenant dies. Cavendish's De Vita et Rebus Gestis Nobilissimi Illustrissimique Principis, Guilielmi Ducis Novo-castrensis (the Duke's life trans. into Latin); Grounds of Natural Philosophy: . . . The Second Edition, much altered from the First, which went under the name of Philosophical and Physical Opinions; also the second edition of Observations upon Experimental Philosophy: To which is added, The Description of a new Blazing World; the separate publication of The Description of a New World, called the Blazing-World; the third edition of Poems, and Fancies titled Poems, or, Several Fancies in Verse: with the Animal Parliament, in Prose ; the second edition of Orations of Divers Sorts, Accomodated to Divers Places and, finally, Plays, never before Printed. John Wallis proposes the Law of Conservation of Momentum (the total momentum of a closed system remains always unchanged). Francesco Redi disproves the theory of spontaneous generation through a series of experiments with flies and rotting meat. Newton builds the first reflecting telescope.
1669 Second edition of Philips's collected works. Rembrandt dies. Racine's Les Plaideurs and Britannicus. Royal Academy of Music founded in Paris. Newton begins to develop the calculus at about the same time Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz begins work on the calculus. Nicolaus Steno proposes that fossils are the remains of creatures long dead which had petrified into stone (popular alternate theories at the time include fossils as practice attempts by God to create living creatures; failed attempts by Satan to imitate God; and the remains of the animals drowned in the Flood). Erasmus Bartholin observes double refraction, but the phenomenon remains unexplained for 150 years. Lower notes that blood is dark in the veins but turns bright red on contact with air, but the phenomenon remains unexplained for one hundred years.
1670 Wren's works include the St. Mary Aldermanbury church (completed in 1676), St. Mary-le-Bow church, Cheapside (completed in 1677), and the St. Michael's church, Cornhill (completed in 1672). Dryden's Tyrannick Love, or the Royal Martyr. Aphra Behn's The Forc'd Marriage; or, the Jealous Bridegroom. Molière's Le Bourgeois gentilhomme. William Clement invents the recoil, or anchor escapement, which controls the amplitude of the pendulum (a smaller arc makes for a more accurate clock); he also invents the minute hand. Francesco de Lana, a Jesuit monk, designs an airship (never built) that would be lifted by four copper spheres containing a near vacuum. Anthony Deane's Doctrine of naval architecture.
1671 Milton's Paradise Regained and Samson Agonistes. Wren begins the church of St. Lawrence Jewry (completed 1677) and the church of St. Magnus the Martyr (completed 1676). Molière's Psyché and Lully's Psyché. Dryden's An Evening's Love, or the Mock-Astrologer. William Wycherley's Love in a Wood, or St. James Park. Behn's The Amorous Prince. Cavendish's Natures Pictures drawn by Fancies Pencil to the Life, second edition, and The Worlds Olio, second edition.
1672 Bunyan's A Confession of My Faith, and a Reason of My Practice. Wren begins St. Stephen's church, Walbrook (completed 1679). Molière's Les Femmes savantes. Racine's Bajazet. Dryden's The Conquest of Granada by the Spaniards and Of Heroick Plays. Wycherley's The Gentleman Dancing-Master. Lully establishes Académie Royale de Musique. Covent Garden Drolery, an anthology edited by Behn. Cassini in Paris, working with French astronomer Jean Richer in French Guiana, calculates the parallax of Mars, and subsequently, the distances between the Earth and the other planets. When it becomes clear that the orbit of Saturn is over 1,600,000,000 miles across, humans have the first shocking realization of their small world and its place in the vast universe.
1673 Margaret Cavendish dies. Dryden's Marriage A-la-Mode. Behn's The Dutch Lover. Molière dies. Matthew Locke's The Empress of Morocco. Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz invents a computer that uses Pascal's adding machine as its basis but can also multiply and divide; he builds several copies of the device over the next four years. Louis Joliet and Jacques Marquette reach the northern Mississippi River.
1674 John Milton dies. Robert Herrick dies.
1675 Jan Vermeer dies. Wren begins St. Paul's Cathedral. Racine's Iphigénie. First known purely musical use of horns, previously only for hunting. Tenor oboe first made in France. The Royal Observatory at Greenwich is established, and John Flamsteed placed in charge as the first Royal Astronomer. Cassini notes the dark line in Saturn's rings, which is still called Cassini's division, and we still refer to the rings as plural. Olaus Roemer makes the first calculation of the speed of light (141,000 miles per second, which is only three-fourths of its actual speed).
1676 van Leeuwenhoek, after having ground perfect single lenses for his microscope, discovers what he calls "animalcules," what we call microorganisms, swimming in pond water.
1677 van Leeuwenhoek discovers spermatozoa in semen.
1678 Dom Pérignon invents champagne. Edmond Halley publishes a catalogue of 341 southern stars, the first systematic astronomical observations of the skies over the far southern hemisphere.
1682 Isaac Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis principia mathematica, establishes Newton's three laws of motion and the law of universal gravity; the Principia becomes the basis for the development of theoretical mechanics over the next 200 years. First sighting of Halley's comet.
16. All events and dates in this timeline are from the following sources: Issac Asimov's Asimov's Chronology of Science and Discovery, updated and illustrated; David M. Brownstone and Irene M. Franck'sTimelines of the Arts and Literature: A Chronology of Culturein Human History -- from the Magdalenian Cave Paintings to Madonna; Bryan Bunch and Alexander Hellemans's The Timetables of Technology: A Chronology of the Most Important People and Events in the History of Technology; Douglas Grant's Margaret the First: A Biography of Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle 1623-1673; and Carolyn Merchant's The Death of Nature: Women, Ecology, and the Scientific Revolution. In addition, some discrepancies were checked against the Microsoft ® Encarta TM Multimedia Encyclopedia
17. "When [Cavendish's] dialogue between Melancholy and Mirth [from Poems, and fancies] was reprinted a hundred years later, Mr. Town praised it extremely in the Connoisseur, No.69. He saw Margaret as in a vision leap upon Pegasus, her old-fashioned fantastic habit fluttering in the wind, and gallop off helter-skelter. 'However, it was aknowledged, that she kept a firm seat, even when the horse when at his deepest rate; and that she wanted nothing but to ride with a curb-bridle.' He watched Shakespeare and Milton step forward to hand her down and suggested darkly, and wildly, that Milton had collected some hints for L'Allegro and Il Penseroso from the dialogue between Melancholy and Mirth" (Grant 121)